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The first-known leavened bread made with semi-domesticated yeast dates back to around 1000 B.C. in Egypt, according to Miller.

Who Is The Inventor Of Bread And When Invented?

Unlike chocolate chip cookies or tomato soup, the invention of bread can't be pinned down to a single person or people; instead, it evolved to its present state over the course of millennia.

Although the modern version of sliced bread is a fairly new invention (Wonder Bread began marketing the first sliced loaf of bread in 1930), bread itself is an ancient food with origins dating back more than 22,000 years.

In 2004, at an excavation site called Ohalo II, in what is modern-day Israel, scientists found 22,000-year-old barley grains caught in a grinding stone: the first evidence of humans processing wild cereal grains. But these early "bread" creations were probably more like "flat cakes of ground seeds and grains heated on a rock, or in the embers of a fire," than standard sandwich bread, Howard Miller, a food historian and professor at Lipscomb University in Nashville, Tennessee, told Live Science.

Bread grains, the first plants to be domesticated, were first harvested in the wild by the Natufians. This Mesolithic group of hunter-gatherers lived in the Jordan River Valley region of the Middle East about 12,500 years ago.

"The Natufians are thought to be the first people to make the transition between survival purely on foods that you harvest from nature to becoming farmers who control all aspects of the food supply," William Rubel, a food historian and author of "Bread: A Global History" (Reaktion Books, 2011), told Live Science. "The Natufians had the infrastructure for grinding barley and then making it into bread."

The Natufians had the earliest known agricultural-based society and would process grains into a coarse flour, from which they made a "small, pita-like, unleavened loaf cooked directly on the coals of a fire," Miller said.

Over the next several thousand years, agriculture and the cultivation of grains spread across the Middle East and southwest Asia through trade contacts with other hunter-gatherer peoples in the Nile Valley, Mesopotamia and east of the Indus Valley.

"Bread was the evolutionary spark that led to the development of state and large political units," Rubel said. "Bread allowed for the accumulation of surplus, and so the villages got bigger until you had actual cities."
More than 5,000 years after the Natufians began making flatbread, three civilizations were rapidly growing and expanding during the Bronze Age: the Egyptians, the Mesopotamians (in what is modern-day Iraq) and the Harappans (in the Indus Valley, in what is modern-day Pakistan). All three civilizations, considered the largest in the ancient world, depended on bread.

"Bread was the majority of their calories," Rubel said. "Bread allowed for the building of surpluses and developing of [social] classes. You didn't have a class of full-time artisans until you had bread."

The first-known leavened bread made with semi-domesticated yeast dates back to around 1000 B.C. in Egypt, according to Miller. However, scholars debate the exact origin, as evidence suggests that Mesopotamians also produced yeast-risen bread, Rubel said.

In fact, the invention of yeast-risen bread likely has boozy roots. Ancient Egyptians used barley and emmer wheat both to brew sour beer and to make sourdough bread, according to a 1994 study in the journal Egyptian Archeology. The ancient Egyptians could have made beer by baking "richly yeasted dough" into "beer loaves," then crumbling that bread and straining it with water, which would then ferment into beer, according to the book "Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology" (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

"Beer is liquid bread," Miller said. "They have the same ingredients — water, grain, yeast — just in different proportions."

From the cradle of civilization's flat breads to the packaged supermarket slices we know today, bread has evolved alongside society, ever since humans first crushed grains against a grinding stone thousands of years ago.

VLSI technology plays a very important role in digital devices and electronics field. We hope India will be able to achieve this as soon as possible and realize its dream of Make in India and Digital India.

Role Of VLSI Industry In India For Digital Revolution: By Chandan Kumar Dwivedi

The whole domain of computing ushered into a new dawn of electronic miniaturization with the advent of semiconductor transistor by Bardeen (1947-48) and then the bipolar transistor by Shockley (1949) in the Bell Laboratory. Since the invention of the first IC (integrated circuit) in the form of a flip-flop by Jack Kilby in 1958, our ability to pack more and more transistors onto a single chip has doubled roughly every 18 months, in accordance with Moore's law. Such exponential development had never been seen in any other field and it still continues to be a major area of research work.

History and Evolution

The development of microelectronics spans a time, which is even lesser than the average life expectancy of a human, and yet it has seen as many as four generations. Early 60s saw the low-density fabrication processes classified under small-scale integration (SSI), in which transistor count was limited to about 10. This rapidly gave way to medium-scale integration in the late 60s when around 100 transistors could be placed on a single chip.

It was the time when the cost of research began to decline and private firms started entering the competition in contrast to the earlier years, where the main burden was borne by the military. Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) offering higher integration densities that outlasted other IC families like ECL became the basis of the first integrated circuit revolution. It was the production of this family that gave impetus to semiconductor giants like Texas Instruments, Fairchild, and National Semiconductors. Early seventies marked the growth of transistor count to about 1000 per chip, called the large-scale integration.

By mid-eighties, the transistor count on a single chip had already exceeded 1000, and hence came the age of very-large-scale integration or VLSI. Though many improvements have been made and the transistor count is still rising, further names of generations like ULSI are generally avoided. It was during this time TTL lost the battle to MOS family owing to the same problems that had pushed vacuum tubes into negligence, power dissipation and the limit it imposed on the number of gates that could be placed on a single die.

VLSI in IndiaWe know that India understands the power of electronics. The Indian electronics industry and India can fully realize the Digital India dream in itself. When the VLSI industry will be established in our country, we can imagine the dream of Digital India or Make in India. Today, in our country there is no single VLSI manufacturing unit in any state or region. So due to this reason, we can say that India cannot make digital ICs, or digital circuits. For digital ICs or digital equipment, we are totally dependent on other countries.

Even now in Indian electronics industry, our country has not been able to do this easily. It cannot easily manufacture those digital devices, like other countries are fabricating the ICs. The VLSI technique or device fabrication and manufacturing in India can bring a digital revolution in India. These steps will be a part of digital electronics. After this evolution in VLSI Industry, electronics or digital devices will become totally inexpensive and we will no longer need to be dependent on other countries for their products and technology. On the contrary, other countries will be able to use our technology and will buy electronics products made by India.

VLSI technology plays a very important role in digital devices and electronics field. We hope India will be able to achieve this as soon as possible and realize its dream of Make in India and Digital India.

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